Exhibitions

Table of Contents


Introduction

Exhibition Activity

The exhibition itself follows the activity pattern, as described in the section on Provenance. In particular, it takes place at a certain time given in timespan, at a certain place given in took_place_at, and was organized by some actor, likely an organization, given in carried_out_by. It can be recognized as an exhibition using the classification of aat:300054766, "exhibitions".

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/8", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "label": "Example Exhibition", 
  "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
  "took_place_at": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/place/7", 
      "type": "Place", 
      "label": "Example Museum's Location", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300005768"]
    }
  ], 
  "timespan": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/7", 
    "type": "TimeSpan", 
    "begin_of_the_begin": "2010-08-01", 
    "end_of_the_end": "2011-06-01"
  }, 
  "carried_out_by": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/8", 
      "type": "Group", 
      "label": "Example Museum", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300312281"]
    }
  ]
}

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Multiple Venues

Some exhibitions are shown at different locations over time, moving from one museum or exhibition hall to another. In this case, each of the different locations is treated as an exhibition in its own right, and then a broader "travelling exhibition" (aat:300054773) is created that these are part of. Note that the travelling exhibition can have separate properties from its parts, such as a label to distinguish the joint nature and a broader timespan that covers all of the venues. There is no need to duplicate the organizations and locations in the travelling exhibition, these can be determined more easily by looking at the exhibitions that it consists of.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/9", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "label": "Example Travelling Exhibition at Two Museums", 
  "classified_as": ["aat:300054773"], 
  "timespan": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/8", 
    "type": "TimeSpan", 
    "begin_of_the_begin": "1980-10-01", 
    "end_of_the_end": "1981-08-14"
  }, 
  "consists_of": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/10", 
      "type": "Activity", 
      "label": "Exhibition at Museum 1", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
      "timespan": {
        "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/9", 
        "type": "TimeSpan", 
        "begin_of_the_begin": "1980-10-01", 
        "end_of_the_end": "1981-03-01"
      }
    }, 
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/11", 
      "type": "Activity", 
      "label": "Exhibition at Museum 2", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
      "timespan": {
        "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/10", 
        "type": "TimeSpan", 
        "begin_of_the_begin": "1981-03-14", 
        "end_of_the_end": "1981-08-14"
      }
    }
  ]
}

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Objects

The art objects on display at exhibitions can be listed from the Exhibition with the property used_specific_object. For the travelling exhibitions described above, the objects should be referenced from each of the venues, as some venues will add in or replace objects. It also helps to maintain the provenance of the object, described in the next section about transfer of custody. The objects can refer back to the exhibitions they were displayed in using the inverse used_for property (not included in the example below).

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/12", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "label": "Example Exhibition", 
  "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
  "used_specific_object": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/17", 
      "type": "ManMadeObject", 
      "label": "Painting", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300033618","aat:300133025"]
    }, 
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/18", 
      "type": "ManMadeObject", 
      "label": "Another Painting", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300033618","aat:300133025"]
    }, 
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/19", 
      "type": "ManMadeObject", 
      "label": "Sculpture", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300047090","aat:300133025"]
    }
  ]
}

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Exhibition Provenance: Transfer of Custody

As objects used for exhibitions frequently come from many different organizations, it is useful and interesting to track the custody of the object as well as the ownership. This TransferOfCustody event is modeled in the same way as other Provenance changes.

For each exhibition, the custody of the object is transferred from the previous custodian to the next. In the simple case of a single venue for the exhibition, the first transfer is likely to be from the owner to the organization responsible for the exhibition, and then at the end of the exhibition, the custody is transferred back again. In a more complex scenario with multiple venues, each organization hosting the exhibition will likely transfer custody to the next in the sequence. Unlike regular provenance transfers, these happen for a specific purpose ... the exhibition. This is added to the model with the specific_purpose property.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/13", 
  "type": "TransferOfCustody", 
  "label": "Custody Transfer of Painting for Exhibition", 
  "transferred_custody_to": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/9", 
    "type": "Group", 
    "label": "Exhibiting Museum", 
    "classified_as": ["aat:300312281"]
  }, 
  "transferred_custody_from": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/10", 
    "type": "Group", 
    "label": "Owning Museum", 
    "classified_as": ["aat:300312281"]
  }, 
  "transferred_custody_of": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/20", 
      "type": "ManMadeObject", 
      "label": "Painting", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300033618","aat:300133025"], 
      "current_owner": "https://linked.art/example/group/10"
    }
  ], 
  "specific_purpose": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/14", 
      "type": "Activity", 
      "label": "Example Exhibition", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
      "used_specific_object": ["https://linked.art/example/object/20"], 
      "carried_out_by": ["https://linked.art/example/group/9"]
    }
  ]
}

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Exhibition Specific Labels

The curators for exhibitions sometimes assign new labels or names for objects, for example to ensure that they follow an established pattern for the exhibition, rather than following that of the owning organization or person, if any. This activity of assigning a title to the object (aat:300411672) is part of the exhibition via the consists_of property, and assigns a new Appellation to the object. This separation of the name from the object via the AttributeAssignment ensures that the Appellation does not directly end up in the set of titles for the object without further intervention. As with any activity, the assignment can also be carried_out_by an actor, and have a timespan for when it was assigned.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/15", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "label": "Example Exhibition", 
  "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
  "consists_of": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/16", 
      "type": "AttributeAssignment", 
      "assigned": {
        "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/10", 
        "type": "Appellation", 
        "value": "Exhibition Specific Name"
      }, 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300411672"], 
      "assigned_to": {
        "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/21", 
        "type": "ManMadeObject", 
        "label": "Real Painting Name", 
        "classified_as": ["aat:300033618","aat:300133025"]
      }
    }
  ]
}

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Digital Integration

There are often photographs or other digital representations of the object as displayed in the exhibition. These follow the same pattern as other digital representations of the object but are also, at the same time, a representation of the exhibition itself. To model this, the representation property can be used on the exhibition as well as the object, pointing to the Image.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/17", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "label": "Example Exhibition", 
  "classified_as": ["aat:300054766"], 
  "used_specific_object": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/22", 
      "type": "ManMadeObject", 
      "label": "Painting", 
      "classified_as": ["aat:300033618","aat:300133025"], 
      "representation": ["http://example.org/images/object-at-exhibition.jpg"]
    }
  ], 
  "representation": [
    {
      "id": "http://example.org/images/object-at-exhibition.jpg", 
      "type": "VisualItem", 
      "format": "image/jpeg"
    }
  ]
}

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