Vocabulary Terms

Table of Contents


This is a living document that tries to capture the current set of frequently used vocabulary terms across organizations and projects. The lists of terms are not intended to be complete or all-encompassing, but starting points to use in data production and software development.

The data model does not require the use of these terms, or any other specific terms, however if there is reasonably widespread re-use of the same terms, then that gives a good indication that they are valuable and understandable. As such, if they are broadly adopted, the process of mapping real data into the model and the development of both server and client software that implements the model for users becomes significantly easier.

If the term plus class is not self-evident as to how it should be used in the model, then a description of its usage is provided in the tables below. This should not be confused with the scope notes or description of the term itself ... it applies to the usage in the linked.art context, rather than being a general description of the concept.

This should (still, somehow) be auto-generated from data, and use emerging consensus. The current starter lists are from the Getty Provenance Index, Getty Museum, and the American Art Collaborative data.


These classifications used to futher clarify the type of a resource. The reference is found in the classified_as property of the resource. The lists are divided up per class of resource, given in the type property. In general, please see the common patterns.


The most common classification used for art is the type of artwork. The two lists below are divided into primarily visual works such as paintings and sculpture, separate from broad classes of man-made objects that are displayed. Please see Object Types.

Visual Works

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300133025 works of art Should be used for all objects considered as art
aat:300014063 textiles
aat:300015342 mosaics
aat:300151343 ceramics
aat:300033618 paintings
aat:300033963 collages
aat:300033973 drawings
aat:300041273 prints
aat:300047090 sculpture
aat:300047203 carvings
aat:300047896 installations
aat:300046300 photographs
aat:300127173 negatives
aat:300266660 calligraphy
aat:300033936 miniatures
aat:300028569 manuscripts


AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300387350 exchange media For coins, stamps, tickets, coupons etc
aat:300037336 furnishings For furniture and furnishings
aat:300266639 clothing
aat:300209273 costume accessories For jewelry and other worn or held accessories
aat:300036926 weapons
aat:300197197 containers For boxes, baskets, vessels of all types
aat:300219258 vehicles
aat:300117130 fragments For small, separated pieces

Parts of Objects

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300190692 backs
aat:300190703 fronts
aat:300190710 tops
aat:300190695 bottoms
aat:300190706 sides
aat:300014844 supports For the part that a drawing or painting is on
aat:300014657 panel
aat:300404391 frames
aat:300131087 mounts

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/0", 
  "type": "ManMadeObject", 
  "label": "Example Painting", 
  "classified_as": [
    {"id": "aat:300033618","type": "Type","label": "Painting"}, 
    {"id": "aat:300133025","type": "Type","label": "Artwork"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


Things take two roles within the model, as parts of objects (such as the support or a frame) and for aggregations such as a collection or auction lot. Please see parts of objects and collections respectively.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300025976 collections For an aggregation of objects
aat:300411912 public collections
aat:300411307 auction lots

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/set/0", 
  "type": "Aggregation", 
  "label": "Set of Objects in an Auction Lot"

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


These classifications are used to further describe the intent of a piece of text associated with some resource. Please see the shared statements pattern.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300010358 materials For materials/medium statements
aat:300026687 acknowledgments For acknolwedgements and attributions
aat:300055547 legal concepts For rights statements
aat:300080102 biographies For biographical descriptions of people/groups
aat:300266036 dimensions For statements about size and shape
aat:300121294 editions For series or edition statements
aat:300055863 provenance For provenance statements
aat:300411780 description For general descriptions
aat:300028702 inscriptions For transcribing inscriptions
aat:300028705 signatures For transcribing signatures

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/text/0", 
  "type": "LinguisticObject", 
  "value": "Example painting is 24 inches wide by 36 1/2 inches tall", 
  "classified_as": [
    {"id": "aat:300266036","type": "Type","label": "Dimension Statement"}, 
    {"id": "aat:300418049","type": "Type","label": "Brief Text"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


InformationObjects are classified primarily according to their function, such as an auction catalog versus an exhibition catalog.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300026061 catalogues raisonnés
aat:300026096 exhibition catalogs
aat:300026068 auction catalogs
aat:300026074 sales catalogs
aat:300027483 account books
aat:300027168 registers (lists) For lists of things
aat:300264578 Web pages

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/text/1", 
  "type": "LinguisticObject", 
  "label": "Example Auction Catalog", 
  "classified_as": [
    {"id": "aat:300026068","type": "Type","label": "Auction Catalog"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


Places are also classified primarily according to the function that typically takes place there. Please see the model for places.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300005234 auction houses
aat:300005768 museums
aat:300240057 galleries

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/place/0", 
  "type": "Place", 
  "label": "Example Museum Site", 
  "classified_as": [{"id": "aat:300005768","type": "Type","label": "Museum"}]

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


Groups are described along with people.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300312281 museums
aat:300263534 departments For sub-institution structure
aat:300379842 nationality
aat:300055147 sex role For genders

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/0", 
  "type": "Group", 
  "label": "Example Museum Organization", 
  "classified_as": [{"id": "aat:300312281","type": "Type","label": "Museum"}]

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300393177 active
aat:300054751 auctions
aat:300054766 exhibitions
aat:300054773 traveling exhibitions
aat:300077506 inventorying
aat:300054277 curating
aat:300077989 purchasing For Acquisitions that involve money

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/0", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "label": "Example Auction", 
  "classified_as": [
    {"id": "aat:300054751","type": "Type","label": "Auctioning"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


There are many specific types of identifiers, sometimes called "identifier schemes". The set below are not specific schemes such as DOIs or Lugt Numbers, but general classes of identifier usage. Broadly adopted identifier schemes will be included when there is data to support the extent of adoption.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300312355 accession numbers
aat:300404621 repository numbers
aat:300404628 lot numbers For auction lot identifiers
aat:300412177 stock numbers


  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/0", 
  "type": "Identifier", 
  "value": "P2005.12.276", 
  "classified_as": [
    {"id": "aat:300312355","type": "Type","label": "Accession Number"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


Unlike Identifiers, Names are normally classified only once they have been divided into parts. The classification represents the nature of the part of the name, relative to the whole.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300404651 first names
aat:300404652 last names
aat:300404654 middle names
aat:300404662 suffixes
aat:300404845 prefixes

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/0", 
  "type": "Name", 
  "value": "Example", 
  "classified_as": [
    {"id": "aat:300404651","type": "Type","label": "Given Name"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


Dimensions are classified to represent the relationship between the value and the object being measured. Please see the section on object dimensions.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300055644 height
aat:300055647 width
aat:300072633 depth
aat:300055624 diameter
aat:300056240 weight

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/value/0", 
  "type": "Dimension", 
  "value": 24, 
  "classified_as": [{"id": "aat:300055644","type": "Type","label": "Height"}]

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


Vocabulary terms are also used as the identifier for particular instances of classes, rather than to be more specific about their type. For example, aat:300111188 is the identifier for the Group of people that could be considered as French. This Group could be further classified as a aat:300379842 Nationality.


Groups are used for many groups of people, however nationalities and genders are commonly recorded consistently across datasets.

AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300111159 British
aat:300111188 French
aat:300111198 Italian
aat:300111192 German
aat:300111175 Dutch
aat:300111215 Spanish
aat:300017437 Native American
aat:300107956 American
aat:300189557 female
aat:300189559 male

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/0", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "label": "Example French Person", 
  "member_of": [{"id": "aat:300111188","type": "Group","label": "French"}]

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300010439 clay
aat:300010669 terracotta
aat:300010797 glass
aat:300010900 metal
aat:300010942 copper alloy
aat:300010946 brass
aat:300010957 bronze
aat:300011002 iron
aat:300011020 copper
aat:300011022 lead
aat:300011021 gold
aat:300264831 gold leaf
aat:300011029 silver
aat:300011101 alabaster
aat:300011176 stone
aat:300011443 marble
aat:300011727 chalk
aat:300011798 bone
aat:300011845 leather
aat:300011852 vellum
aat:300011857 ivory
aat:300011914 wood
aat:300012264 oak
aat:300012862 charcoal
aat:300014069 linen
aat:300014078 canvas
aat:300014109 paper
aat:300014224 cardboard
aat:300014585 wax
aat:300014927 plaster of Paris
aat:300015012 ink
aat:300015045 watercolor paint
aat:300015050 oil paint
aat:300015062 tempera
aat:300070114 gouache
aat:300147678 enamel paint
aat:300410335 pencil
aat:300404632 pastel
aat:300235507 ceramic

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/1", 
  "type": "ManMadeObject", 
  "label": "Oak Frame", 
  "classified_as": [{"id": "aat:300404391","type": "Type","label": "Frame"}], 
  "made_of": [{"id": "aat:300012264","type": "Material","label": "oak"}]

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)


AAT Term Label Usage Notes
aat:300379099 meters
aat:300379098 centimeters
aat:300379101 feet
aat:300379100 inches
aat:300379226 kilograms
aat:300379225 grams
aat:300379254 pounds
aat:300379229 ounces

  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/value/1", 
  "type": "Dimension", 
  "label": "24 inches high", 
  "value": 24, 
  "classified_as": [{"id": "aat:300055644","type": "Type","label": "Height"}], 
  "unit": {"id": "aat:300379100","type": "MeasurementUnit","label": "inches"}

JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)