Object Acquisition and Loan

Table of Contents


Introduction

The majority of recorded provenance events are when the object changes ownership, and the various methods in which that happens. In the descriptions below the terms 'seller' and 'buyer' are used to refer to the actor that is relinquishing ownership and the actor that is gaining ownership, even if there is no money or other goods or services changing hands. This is for clarity and conciseness of the descriptions, and not to imply that every transaction is a purchase.

Object Acquisition

Acquisitions are used to describe the transfer of ownership of an object from one owner to the next. The first owner is typically the artist, who would then transfer it to the second owner, to the third owner and so on. The ownership chain can be expressed by repeating this same pattern with the buyer from one acquisition being the seller in the subsequent one. If the previous owner (e.g. the seller if there is a value exchange) or the subsequent owner (e.g. the buyer) is not known for a particular acquisition, then the reference can be left out from the description.

The acquistion is not necessarily a purchase, it could be a gift, an inheritance or any other method of gaining the right of ownership of an object.

The model encodes this information with an Acquisition part of the overall Provenance Event. The acquisition is the transfer of the right of ownership of an object (referenced in transferred_title_of) from the seller (in transferred_title_from) to the buyer (in transferred_title_to).

Each object has its own Acquisition as part of the provenance event, so if a collector buys three paintings from a dealer, then there would be a single Provenance Event with three Acquisitions, all of which transfer the title of a single painting from the dealer to the collector.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/17", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "_label": "Purchase of Sculpture", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055863", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Provenance Activity"
    }
  ], 
  "part": [
    {
      "type": "Acquisition", 
      "_label": "Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller", 
      "transferred_title_of": [
        {
          "type": "HumanMadeObject", 
          "_label": "Sculpture", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300047090", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Sculpture", 
              "classified_as": [
                {
                  "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435443", 
                  "type": "Type", 
                  "_label": "Type of Work"
                }
              ]
            }, 
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300133025", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Artwork"
            }
          ]
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_to": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity17) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Activity] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Purchase of Sculpture''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300055863) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Provenance Activity''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3( _ ) class O3 event; O3-- type -->O3_0[Acquisition] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_2("''Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller''") class O3_2 literal; O4( _ ) class O4 object; O4-- type -->O4_0[HumanMadeObject] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_2("''Sculpture''") class O4_2 literal; O5(aat:300047090) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Type] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Sculpture''") class O5_3 literal; O6(aat:300435443) class O6 type; O6-- type -->O6_0[Type] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_3("''Type of Work''") class O6_3 literal; O5-- classified_as -->O6 O4-- classified_as -->O5 O7(aat:300133025) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Type] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''Artwork''") class O7_3 literal; O4-- classified_as -->O7 O3-- transferred_title_of -->O4 O8( _ ) class O8 actor; O8-- type -->O8_0[Person] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- _label -->O8_2("''Seller''") class O8_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_from -->O8 O9( _ ) class O9 actor; O9-- type -->O9_0[Person] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_2("''Buyer''") class O9_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_to -->O9 O1-- part -->O3
Other Representations: JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)

Multiple Owners

In the simple case of multiple simultaneous owners where either the division of the ownership is unknown or an even split, all of the owners can simply be listed with transferred_title_from (when the group is selling) or transferred_title_to (when the group is buying).

If there is additional information known about the exact nature of the ownership division, then it is worth considering the more complex and more expressive section on rights to describe this in more detail.

If there are multiple parties that have formally entered into a legal consortium or organization, and that consortium is the legal owner of the object, then the consortium should be modeled as a Group with the parties as members, and be the sole owner of the object.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/18", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "_label": "Purchase of Sculpture", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055863", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Provenance Activity"
    }
  ], 
  "part": [
    {
      "type": "Acquisition", 
      "_label": "Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller by two Buyers", 
      "transferred_title_of": [
        {
          "type": "HumanMadeObject", 
          "_label": "Sculpture", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300047090", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Sculpture", 
              "classified_as": [
                {
                  "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435443", 
                  "type": "Type", 
                  "_label": "Type of Work"
                }
              ]
            }, 
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300133025", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Artwork"
            }
          ]
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_to": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }, 
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer 2"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity18) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Activity] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Purchase of Sculpture''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300055863) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Provenance Activity''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3( _ ) class O3 event; O3-- type -->O3_0[Acquisition] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_2("''Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller by two Buyers''") class O3_2 literal; O4( _ ) class O4 object; O4-- type -->O4_0[HumanMadeObject] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_2("''Sculpture''") class O4_2 literal; O5(aat:300047090) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Type] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Sculpture''") class O5_3 literal; O6(aat:300435443) class O6 type; O6-- type -->O6_0[Type] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_3("''Type of Work''") class O6_3 literal; O5-- classified_as -->O6 O4-- classified_as -->O5 O7(aat:300133025) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Type] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''Artwork''") class O7_3 literal; O4-- classified_as -->O7 O3-- transferred_title_of -->O4 O8( _ ) class O8 actor; O8-- type -->O8_0[Person] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- _label -->O8_2("''Seller''") class O8_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_from -->O8 O9( _ ) class O9 actor; O9-- type -->O9_0[Person] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_2("''Buyer''") class O9_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_to -->O9 O10( _ ) class O10 actor; O10-- type -->O10_0[Person] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- _label -->O10_2("''Buyer 2''") class O10_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_to -->O10 O1-- part -->O3
Other Representations: JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)

Agents

In some cases, it is known that an agent other than the buyer carried out the acquisition. This can be modeled by associating a different actor from the buyer (the person who title is transferred to) carrying out the activity.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/19", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "_label": "Purchase of Sculpture", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055863", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Provenance Activity"
    }
  ], 
  "part": [
    {
      "type": "Acquisition", 
      "_label": "Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller", 
      "carried_out_by": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Agent for the Buyer"
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_of": [
        {
          "type": "HumanMadeObject", 
          "_label": "Sculpture", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300047090", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Sculpture", 
              "classified_as": [
                {
                  "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435443", 
                  "type": "Type", 
                  "_label": "Type of Work"
                }
              ]
            }, 
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300133025", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Artwork"
            }
          ]
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_to": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity19) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Activity] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Purchase of Sculpture''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300055863) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Provenance Activity''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3( _ ) class O3 event; O3-- type -->O3_0[Acquisition] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_2("''Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller''") class O3_2 literal; O4( _ ) class O4 actor; O4-- type -->O4_0[Person] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_2("''Agent for the Buyer''") class O4_2 literal; O3-- carried_out_by -->O4 O5( _ ) class O5 object; O5-- type -->O5_0[HumanMadeObject] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_2("''Sculpture''") class O5_2 literal; O6(aat:300047090) class O6 type; O6-- type -->O6_0[Type] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_3("''Sculpture''") class O6_3 literal; O7(aat:300435443) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Type] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''Type of Work''") class O7_3 literal; O6-- classified_as -->O7 O5-- classified_as -->O6 O8(aat:300133025) class O8 type; O8-- type -->O8_0[Type] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- _label -->O8_3("''Artwork''") class O8_3 literal; O5-- classified_as -->O8 O3-- transferred_title_of -->O5 O9( _ ) class O9 actor; O9-- type -->O9_0[Person] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_2("''Seller''") class O9_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_from -->O9 O10( _ ) class O10 actor; O10-- type -->O10_0[Person] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- _label -->O10_2("''Buyer''") class O10_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_to -->O10 O1-- part -->O3
Other Representations: JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)

Exchange of Objects

This pattern allows for the exchange of objects between two parties by simply adding a second Acquisition.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/20", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "_label": "Exchange of Sculpture for Painting", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055863", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Provenance Activity"
    }
  ], 
  "part": [
    {
      "type": "Acquisition", 
      "_label": "Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller", 
      "transferred_title_of": [
        {
          "type": "HumanMadeObject", 
          "_label": "Sculpture", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300047090", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Sculpture", 
              "classified_as": [
                {
                  "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435443", 
                  "type": "Type", 
                  "_label": "Type of Work"
                }
              ]
            }, 
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300133025", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Artwork"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "type": "HumanMadeObject", 
          "_label": "Painting", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300033618", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Painting", 
              "classified_as": [
                {
                  "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435443", 
                  "type": "Type", 
                  "_label": "Type of Work"
                }
              ]
            }, 
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300133025", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Artwork"
            }
          ]
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }, 
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }
      ], 
      "transferred_title_to": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }, 
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }
      ]
    }, 
    {
      "type": "Acquisition", 
      "_label": "Acquisition of Painting from Buyer"
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity20) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Activity] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Exchange of Sculpture for Painting''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300055863) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Provenance Activity''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3( _ ) class O3 event; O3-- type -->O3_0[Acquisition] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_2("''Acquisition of Sculpture from Seller''") class O3_2 literal; O4( _ ) class O4 object; O4-- type -->O4_0[HumanMadeObject] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_2("''Sculpture''") class O4_2 literal; O5(aat:300047090) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Type] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Sculpture''") class O5_3 literal; O6(aat:300435443) class O6 type; O6-- type -->O6_0[Type] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_3("''Type of Work''") class O6_3 literal; O5-- classified_as -->O6 O4-- classified_as -->O5 O7(aat:300133025) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Type] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''Artwork''") class O7_3 literal; O4-- classified_as -->O7 O3-- transferred_title_of -->O4 O8( _ ) class O8 object; O8-- type -->O8_0[HumanMadeObject] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- _label -->O8_2("''Painting''") class O8_2 literal; O9(aat:300033618) class O9 type; O9-- type -->O9_0[Type] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_3("''Painting''") class O9_3 literal; O9-- classified_as -->O6 O8-- classified_as -->O9 O8-- classified_as -->O7 O3-- transferred_title_of -->O8 O10( _ ) class O10 actor; O10-- type -->O10_0[Person] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- _label -->O10_2("''Seller''") class O10_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_from -->O10 O11( _ ) class O11 actor; O11-- type -->O11_0[Person] class O11_0 classstyle; O11-- _label -->O11_2("''Buyer''") class O11_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_from -->O11 O12( _ ) class O12 actor; O12-- type -->O12_0[Person] class O12_0 classstyle; O12-- _label -->O12_2("''Buyer''") class O12_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_to -->O12 O13( _ ) class O13 actor; O13-- type -->O13_0[Person] class O13_0 classstyle; O13-- _label -->O13_2("''Seller''") class O13_2 literal; O3-- transferred_title_to -->O13 O1-- part -->O3 O14( _ ) class O14 event; O14-- type -->O14_0[Acquisition] class O14_0 classstyle; O14-- _label -->O14_2("''Acquisition of Painting from Buyer''") class O14_2 literal; O1-- part -->O14
Other Representations: JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)

Payments

A purchase is a common type of acquisition in which money is exchanged for the object. The provenance event consists of the acquisition along with one or more related payments. This typically involves a payment from the seller to the buyer for the agreed upon price, but might include further payments to or from others such as for shared ownership, payment of debts owed, or for services rendered as part of the overall activity.

The Payment activity has equivalent relationships for the actor that the money is transferred from (paid_from), the actor the money is transferred to (paid_to), and the amount of money paid (paid_amount). The amount itself is a MonetaryAmount that has a value (value) and a currency (currency). Each separable monetary amount is modeled as an individual instance of Payment, and thus if the buyer paid a commission to the agent who carried out the purchase, and paid for the object, then there would be two Payments, one from the buyer to the seller and one from the buyer to the agent. Commissions to auction houses or for consignments would use the same pattern.

Diachronic Comparison of Monetary Amounts

The CIDOC-CRM SIG have clarified that the MonetaryAmount refers to the face value of the combination of value and currency. This means that any comparison between MonetaryAmount instances should also take into account the datetimes of resources that reference it, rather than standing alone. Further, it is still unclear if the same MonetaryAmount can be used for all occurences of value and currency, or whether there is something more unique than that.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/21", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "_label": "Purchase of Sculpture", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055863", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Provenance Activity"
    }
  ], 
  "part": [
    {
      "type": "Payment", 
      "paid_amount": {
        "type": "MonetaryAmount", 
        "value": 1000, 
        "currency": {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300411994", 
          "type": "Currency", 
          "_label": "US Dollars"
        }
      }, 
      "paid_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }
      ], 
      "paid_to": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity21) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Activity] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Purchase of Sculpture''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300055863) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Provenance Activity''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3( _ ) class O3 event; O3-- type -->O3_0[Payment] class O3_0 classstyle; O4( _ ) class O4 dims; O4-- type -->O4_0[MonetaryAmount] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- value -->O4_2(1000) class O4_2 literal; O5(aat:300411994) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Currency] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''US Dollars''") class O5_3 literal; O4-- currency -->O5 O3-- paid_amount -->O4 O6( _ ) class O6 actor; O6-- type -->O6_0[Person] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_2("''Buyer''") class O6_2 literal; O3-- paid_from -->O6 O7( _ ) class O7 actor; O7-- type -->O7_0[Person] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_2("''Seller''") class O7_2 literal; O3-- paid_to -->O7 O1-- part -->O3
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Payment for Services

Beyond simply paying the previous owner for the object, there are many other reasons why money might change hands that are relevant to describe for art history.

For example, it might be known how much commission went to an auction house or for the sale of objects by consignment, particularly if this comes from the stock books or records of the company. Artists might be paid a commission in advance for the production of an object, or agents might be paid a commission for finding and purchasing objects on behalf of the new owner.

Example:

The above payment might actually have been 900 dollars to the previous owner and 100 dollars to the auction house for its cut.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/22", 
  "type": "Activity", 
  "_label": "Purchase of Sculpture with Commission", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055863", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Provenance Activity"
    }
  ], 
  "part": [
    {
      "type": "Payment", 
      "paid_amount": {
        "type": "MonetaryAmount", 
        "value": 900, 
        "currency": {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300411994", 
          "type": "Currency", 
          "_label": "US Dollars"
        }
      }, 
      "paid_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }
      ], 
      "paid_to": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Seller"
        }
      ]
    }, 
    {
      "type": "Payment", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300393199", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Commission"
        }
      ], 
      "paid_amount": {
        "type": "MonetaryAmount", 
        "value": 100, 
        "currency": {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300411994", 
          "type": "Currency", 
          "_label": "US Dollars"
        }
      }, 
      "paid_from": [
        {
          "type": "Person", 
          "_label": "Buyer"
        }
      ], 
      "paid_to": [
        {
          "type": "Group", 
          "_label": "Auction House", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300417515", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Auction House (organization)"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity22) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Activity] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Purchase of Sculpture with Commission''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300055863) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Provenance Activity''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3( _ ) class O3 event; O3-- type -->O3_0[Payment] class O3_0 classstyle; O4( _ ) class O4 dims; O4-- type -->O4_0[MonetaryAmount] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- value -->O4_2(900) class O4_2 literal; O5(aat:300411994) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Currency] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''US Dollars''") class O5_3 literal; O4-- currency -->O5 O3-- paid_amount -->O4 O6( _ ) class O6 actor; O6-- type -->O6_0[Person] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_2("''Buyer''") class O6_2 literal; O3-- paid_from -->O6 O7( _ ) class O7 actor; O7-- type -->O7_0[Person] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_2("''Seller''") class O7_2 literal; O3-- paid_to -->O7 O1-- part -->O3 O8( _ ) class O8 event; O8-- type -->O8_0[Payment] class O8_0 classstyle; O9(aat:300393199) class O9 type; O9-- type -->O9_0[Type] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_3("''Commission''") class O9_3 literal; O8-- classified_as -->O9 O10( _ ) class O10 dims; O10-- type -->O10_0[MonetaryAmount] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- value -->O10_2(100) class O10_2 literal; O10-- currency -->O5 O8-- paid_amount -->O10 O11( _ ) class O11 actor; O11-- type -->O11_0[Person] class O11_0 classstyle; O11-- _label -->O11_2("''Buyer''") class O11_2 literal; O8-- paid_from -->O11 O12( _ ) class O12 actor; O12-- type -->O12_0[Group] class O12_0 classstyle; O12-- _label -->O12_2("''Auction House''") class O12_2 literal; O13(aat:300417515) class O13 type; O13-- type -->O13_0[Type] class O13_0 classstyle; O13-- _label -->O13_3("''Auction House (organization)''") class O13_3 literal; O12-- classified_as -->O13 O8-- paid_to -->O12 O1-- part -->O8
Other Representations: JSON-LD (Raw) | JSON-LD (Playground) | Turtle (Raw) | Turtle (Styled)