Linked Art API: Physical Object Representation

Introduction

The Physical Object API is a method of getting access to descriptions of physical objects, such as paintings, sculptures, manuscripts or other tangible artworks. The physical objects that carry the artwork content are a core part of any Linked Art information system, and thus the descriptions are likely to have a substantial amount of fields and data. This results in a relatively long set of relationships and properties, but they follow the typical patterns and constructions.

For more information about the Physical Object data, please see the Object model description.

Properties of Physical Objects

Property Name Datatype Requirement Description
@context string, array Required The value MUST be the URI of the Linked Art context as a string, "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json" or an array in which the URI is the last entry to allow for extensions
id string Required The value MUST be the HTTP(S) URI at which the object's representation can be dereferenced
type string Required The class for the object, which MUST be the value "HumanMadeObject"
_label string Recommended A human readable label for the object, intended for developers
classified_as array Recommended An array of json objects, each of which is a classification of the object and MUST follow the requirements for Type
identified_by array Recommended An array of json objects, each of which is a name/title of the object and MUST follow the requirements for Name, or an identifier for the object and MUST follow the requirements for Identifier
referred_to_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a human readable statement about the object and MUST follow the requirements for Statement
equivalent array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is an reference to an external identity and description of the current object
representation array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a Visual Work that represents the current object, and MUST follow the requirements for an reference
member_of array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a Set that the current object is a member of and MUST follow the requirements for an reference to a Set
subject_of array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a Textual Work, the content of which focuses on the current object, and MUST follow the requirements for an reference
attributed_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a Relationship Assignment that relates the current object to another entity
part_of array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to another Physical Object that the current object is a part of.
dimension array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a Dimension, such as height or width, of the current object
made_of array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a material that the object is made_of and MUST follow the requirements for Material
current_owner array Optional An array of json, objects each of which a reference to a Person or Group that currently owns the object
current_custodian array Optional An array of json, objects each of which a reference to a Person or Group that currently has custody of the object
current_permanent_custodian array Optional An array of json, objects each of which a reference to a Person or Group that normally has custody of the object, but might not at the present time
current_location json object Optional A json object which is a reference to the Place where the object is currently located
current_permanent_location json object Optional A json object which is a reference to the Place where the object is normally located, but might not be at the present time
carries array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a Textual Work that this object carries the text of
shows array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a Visual Work that this object shows a rendition of
used_for array Optional An array of json objects, each of which represents an activity that the object was instumental in, but does not have its own identity
produced_by json object Optional A json object representing the production of the object, which follows the requirements for Productions described below
destroyed_by json object Optional A json object representing the destruction of the object, which follows the requirements for Destructions described below
removed_by json object Optional A json object representing the removal of the current object from a larger one it was previously part of, which follows the requirements for PartRemovals described below
encountered_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which represents an encounter by some actor with the current object, typically when a collector "discovered" the object, which follow the requirements for Encounters described below

Properties of Productions, Destructions, PartRemovals and general Activities

Property Name Datatype Requirement Description
id string Optional If present, the value MUST be a URI identifying the production, destruction or part removal (henceforth "event")
type string Required The class for the event, which MUST be the value "Production", "Destruction", "PartRemoval" or "Activity"
_label string Recommended A human readable label for the event, intended for developers
identified_by array Recommended An array of json objects, each of which is a name for the event and MUST follow the requirements for Name, or an identifier for the event and MUST follow the requirements for Identifier
classified_as array Recommended An array of json objects, each of which is a further classification of the event and MUST follow the requirements for Type
timespan json object Recommended A json object recording when the event occured, which MUST follow the requirements for timespans
referred_to_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is an embedded statement about the event
took_place_at array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a Place where the event occured
caused_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to an Event that caused this event to occur
influenced_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to an entity that influenced the event in some noticable fashion
carried_out_by array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to a Person or Group that carried out this event. **Only usable when the type is "Production" or "PartRemoval"
used_specific_object array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a reference to an entity that was instrumental in the carrying out of this event
technique array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is a technique used in the event and MUST follow the requirements for Type
part array Optional An array of json objects, each of which is another instance of this same event type. Only usable when the type is "Production" or "PartRemoval"
diminished json object Optional A json objects which is a reference to another Physical Object that this object was removed from by this event. Only usable when the type is "PartRemoval"

Property Diagram

diagram

JSON Schema

See the schema documentation and the schema itself

Incoming Properties

Physical Object instances are typically found as the object of the following properties, other than the self-referential properties above. This list is not exhaustive, but is intended to cover the likely cases where other endpoints refer to physical objects.

Property Name Source Endpoint Description
used_specific_object All Various activities can be carried out using a specific physical object as a instrument, tool or other integral component such as a negative in the printing of a photograph
influenced_by All Various activities are influenced by a physical object such as the inspiration for a copy
transferred_title_of Provenance The title of objects can be transferred in provenance activities
transferred_custody_of Provenance The custody of objects can also be transferred
moved Provenance And the objects can be moved between locations
applies_to Provenance Rights can apply to objects
carried_by Textual Work Textual works are carried by objects
shown_by Visual Work And Visual works are shown by objects

Example

The JSON for a Physical Object entry for the Mona Lisa could be as below.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json",
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/object/0",
  "type": "HumanMadeObject",
  "_label": "Mona Lisa",
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300033618",
      "type": "Type",
      "_label": "Painting",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435443",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Type of Work"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300133025",
      "type": "Type",
      "_label": "Artwork"
    }
  ],
  "identified_by": [
    {
      "type": "Name",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404670",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Primary Name"
        }
      ],
      "content": "Mona Lisa",
      "language": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300388277",
          "type": "Language",
          "_label": "English"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "Name",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404670",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Primary Name"
        }
      ],
      "content": "La Joconde",
      "language": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300388306",
          "type": "Language",
          "_label": "French"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "Name",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404670",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Primary Name"
        }
      ],
      "content": "La Gioconda",
      "language": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300388474",
          "type": "Language",
          "_label": "Italian"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "Identifier",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300312355",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Accession Number"
        }
      ],
      "content": "INV. 779"
    }
  ],
  "referred_to_by": [
    {
      "type": "LinguisticObject",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435416",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Description",
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300418049",
              "type": "Type",
              "_label": "Brief Text"
            }
          ]
        }
      ],
      "content": "This portrait was doubtless started in Florence around 1503. It is thought to be of Lisa Gherardini, wife of a Florentine cloth merchant ..."
    }
  ],
  "dimension": [
    {
      "type": "Dimension",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055644",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Height"
        }
      ],
      "value": 0.77,
      "unit": {
        "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300379099",
        "type": "MeasurementUnit",
        "_label": "meters"
      }
    },
    {
      "type": "Dimension",
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055647",
          "type": "Type",
          "_label": "Width"
        }
      ],
      "value": 0.53,
      "unit": {
        "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300379099",
        "type": "MeasurementUnit",
        "_label": "meters"
      }
    }
  ],
  "made_of": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300012363",
      "type": "Material",
      "_label": "Poplar (wood)"
    },
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300015050",
      "type": "Material",
      "_label": "Oil Paint"
    }
  ],
  "member_of": [
    {
      "type": "Set",
      "_label": "Most expensive paintings in the world"
    },
    {
      "id": "http://data.louvre.example/all_holdings",
      "type": "Set",
      "_label": "Holdings of the Louvre"
    }
  ],
  "shows": [
    {
      "id": "http://data.louvre.example/visual/mona_lisa",
      "type": "VisualItem",
      "_label": "Visual Work of the Mona Lisa"
    }
  ],
  "equivalent": [
    {
      "id": "http://wikidata.org/entity/Q12418",
      "type": "HumanMadeObject",
      "_label": "Mona Lisa"
    }
  ],
  "current_owner": [
    {
      "id": "http://louvre.fr/",
      "type": "Group",
      "_label": "The Louvre"
    }
  ],
  "current_location": {
    "id": "http://galleries.example/louvre/711",
    "type": "Place",
    "_label": "Room 711, Denon Wing, The Louvre, Paris"
  },
  "produced_by": {
    "type": "Production",
    "timespan": {
      "type": "TimeSpan",
      "identified_by": [
        {
          "type": "Name",
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404669",
              "type": "Type",
              "_label": "Display Title"
            }
          ],
          "content": "1503-1506"
        }
      ],
      "begin_of_the_begin": "1503-01-01T00:00:00Z",
      "end_of_the_end": "1506-12-31T23:59:59Z"
    },
    "took_place_at": [
      {
        "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7000457",
        "type": "Place",
        "_label": "Florence, Italy"
      }
    ],
    "carried_out_by": [
      {
        "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/ulan/500010879",
        "type": "Person",
        "_label": "Leonardo da Vinci"
      }
    ]
  }
}

graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:#1010FF,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(object/0) class O1 object; O1-- type -->O1_0[HumanMadeObject] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Mona Lisa''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat:300033618) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Painting''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat:300435443) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Type of Work''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O1-- classified_as -->O2 O4(aat:300133025) class O4 type; O4-- type -->O4_0[Type] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_3("''Artwork''") class O4_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O4 O5( _ ) class O5 name; O5-- type -->O5_0[Name] class O5_0 classstyle; O6(aat:300404670) class O6 type; O6-- type -->O6_0[Type] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_3("''Primary Name''") class O6_3 literal; O5-- classified_as -->O6 O5-- content -->O5_3("''Mona Lisa''") class O5_3 literal; O7(aat:300388277) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Language] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''English''") class O7_3 literal; O5-- language -->O7 O1-- identified_by -->O5 O8( _ ) class O8 name; O8-- type -->O8_0[Name] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- classified_as -->O6 O8-- content -->O8_3("''La Joconde''") class O8_3 literal; O9(aat:300388306) class O9 type; O9-- type -->O9_0[Language] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_3("''French''") class O9_3 literal; O8-- language -->O9 O1-- identified_by -->O8 O10( _ ) class O10 name; O10-- type -->O10_0[Name] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- classified_as -->O6 O10-- content -->O10_3("''La Gioconda''") class O10_3 literal; O11(aat:300388474) class O11 type; O11-- type -->O11_0[Language] class O11_0 classstyle; O11-- _label -->O11_3("''Italian''") class O11_3 literal; O10-- language -->O11 O1-- identified_by -->O10 O12( _ ) class O12 name; O12-- type -->O12_0[Identifier] class O12_0 classstyle; O13(aat:300312355) class O13 type; O13-- type -->O13_0[Type] class O13_0 classstyle; O13-- _label -->O13_3("''Accession Number''") class O13_3 literal; O12-- classified_as -->O13 O12-- content -->O12_3("''INV. 779''") class O12_3 literal; O1-- identified_by -->O12 O14( _ ) class O14 infoobj; O14-- type -->O14_0[LinguisticObject] class O14_0 classstyle; O15(aat:300435416) class O15 type; O15-- type -->O15_0[Type] class O15_0 classstyle; O15-- _label -->O15_3("''Description''") class O15_3 literal; O16(aat:300418049) class O16 type; O16-- type -->O16_0[Type] class O16_0 classstyle; O16-- _label -->O16_3("''Brief Text''") class O16_3 literal; O15-- classified_as -->O16 O14-- classified_as -->O15 O14-- content -->O14_3("''This portrait was doubtless started in Florence around 1503. It is thought to be of Lisa Gherardini, wife of a Florentine cloth merchant ...''") class O14_3 literal; O1-- referred_to_by -->O14 O17( _ ) class O17 dims; O17-- type -->O17_0[Dimension] class O17_0 classstyle; O18(aat:300055644) class O18 type; O18-- type -->O18_0[Type] class O18_0 classstyle; O18-- _label -->O18_3("''Height''") class O18_3 literal; O17-- classified_as -->O18 O17-- value -->O17_3(0.77) class O17_3 literal; O19(aat:300379099) class O19 type; O19-- type -->O19_0[MeasurementUnit] class O19_0 classstyle; O19-- _label -->O19_3("''meters''") class O19_3 literal; O17-- unit -->O19 O1-- dimension -->O17 O20( _ ) class O20 dims; O20-- type -->O20_0[Dimension] class O20_0 classstyle; O21(aat:300055647) class O21 type; O21-- type -->O21_0[Type] class O21_0 classstyle; O21-- _label -->O21_3("''Width''") class O21_3 literal; O20-- classified_as -->O21 O20-- value -->O20_3(0.53) class O20_3 literal; O20-- unit -->O19 O1-- dimension -->O20 O22(aat:300012363) class O22 type; O22-- type -->O22_0[Material] class O22_0 classstyle; O22-- _label -->O22_3("''Poplar (wood)''") class O22_3 literal; O1-- made_of -->O22 O23(aat:300015050) class O23 type; O23-- type -->O23_0[Material] class O23_0 classstyle; O23-- _label -->O23_3("''Oil Paint''") class O23_3 literal; O1-- made_of -->O23 O24( _ ) class O24 infoobj; O24-- type -->O24_0[Set] class O24_0 classstyle; O24-- _label -->O24_2("''Most expensive paintings in the world''") class O24_2 literal; O1-- member_of -->O24 O25(http://data.louvre.example/all_holdings) class O25 infoobj; O25-- type -->O25_0[Set] class O25_0 classstyle; O25-- _label -->O25_3("''Holdings of the Louvre''") class O25_3 literal; O1-- member_of -->O25 O26(http://data.louvre.example/visual/mona_lisa) class O26 infoobj; O26-- type -->O26_0[VisualItem] class O26_0 classstyle; O26-- _label -->O26_3("''Visual Work of the Mona Lisa''") class O26_3 literal; O1-- shows -->O26 O27(http://wikidata.org/entity/Q12418) class O27 object; O27-- type -->O27_0[HumanMadeObject] class O27_0 classstyle; O27-- _label -->O27_3("''Mona Lisa''") class O27_3 literal; O1-- equivalent -->O27 O28(http://louvre.fr/) class O28 actor; O28-- type -->O28_0[Group] class O28_0 classstyle; O28-- _label -->O28_3("''The Louvre''") class O28_3 literal; O1-- current_owner -->O28 O29(http://galleries.example/louvre/711) class O29 place; O29-- type -->O29_0[Place] class O29_0 classstyle; O29-- _label -->O29_3("''Room 711, Denon Wing, The Louvre, Paris''") class O29_3 literal; O1-- current_location -->O29 O30( _ ) class O30 event; O30-- type -->O30_0[Production] class O30_0 classstyle; O31( _ ) class O31 timespan; O31-- type -->O31_0[TimeSpan] class O31_0 classstyle; O32( _ ) class O32 name; O32-- type -->O32_0[Name] class O32_0 classstyle; O33(aat:300404669) class O33 type; O33-- type -->O33_0[Type] class O33_0 classstyle; O33-- _label -->O33_3("''Display Title''") class O33_3 literal; O32-- classified_as -->O33 O32-- content -->O32_3("''1503-1506''") class O32_3 literal; O31-- identified_by -->O32 O31-- begin_of_the_begin -->O31_3("''1503-01-01T00:00:00Z''") class O31_3 literal; O31-- end_of_the_end -->O31_4("''1506-12-31T23:59:59Z''") class O31_4 literal; O30-- timespan -->O31 O34(tgn:7000457) class O34 place; O34-- type -->O34_0[Place] class O34_0 classstyle; O34-- _label -->O34_3("''Florence, Italy''") class O34_3 literal; O30-- took_place_at -->O34 O35(ulan:500010879) class O35 actor; O35-- type -->O35_0[Person] class O35_0 classstyle; O35-- _label -->O35_3("''Leonardo da Vinci''") class O35_3 literal; O30-- carried_out_by -->O35 O1-- produced_by -->O30
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