Actors: People and Organizations

Table of Contents


Introduction

All activities are carried out by some actor, either a person (Person) or a group of people (Group) such as an organization or company. The identity and description of these actors are very important to record in order to provide the human context for the activities, and their related places and objects. The creators, finders, owners, sellers and curators of objects are all important to describe in a consistent fashion.

As far as scope goes, the model does not consider that non-humans (such as software or animals) can perform activities, as activities require some notion of intent. Thus the infamous monkey selfies from 2011 is not carried out by anyone, as the monkey cannot do it and the photographer did not intend for the selfies to be taken.

Types

There are two primary types of acting agent, Person and Group. They are sub-classes of the Actor class, which might be used when it is not certain whether the actor is a Person or a Group. For example, if a sale of an object is listed as being from an art dealer called "Smith", it is unclear whether it refers to a person via their family name, or to an organization named after its owner. Equally, if there is no information about the actor currently available, but identity is desired such that it can later be reconciled or used because there is some other information known, then the use of Actor is likely needed in this case as well. As such, encountering all three should be anticipated.

Example: Example Museum, a Group, acquires something from a J. Smith, a Person. The actual acquisition is carried out by some unknown group or person, and therefore just an Actor.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/4", 
  "type": "Acquisition", 
  "transferred_title_from": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/2", 
      "type": "Person", 
      "_label": "J. Smith"
    }
  ], 
  "transferred_title_to": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/2", 
      "type": "Group", 
      "_label": "Example Museum Organization", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300312281", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Museum"
        }
      ]
    }
  ], 
  "carried_out_by": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/actor/1", 
      "type": "Actor", 
      "_label": "Unknown Person or Organization"
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(activity4) class O1 event; O1-- type -->O1_0[Acquisition] class O1_0 classstyle; O2(person2) class O2 actor; O2-- type -->O2_0[Person] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''J. Smith''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- transferred_title_from -->O2 O3(group2) class O3 actor; O3-- type -->O3_0[Group] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Example Museum Organization''") class O3_3 literal; O4(aat: 300312281) class O4 type; O4-- type -->O4_0[Type] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_3("''Museum''") class O4_3 literal; O3-- classified_as -->O4 O1-- transferred_title_to -->O3 O5(actor1) class O5 actor; O5-- type -->O5_0[Actor] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Unknown Person or Organization''") class O5_3 literal; O1-- carried_out_by -->O5

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Names

Names are turned into first class resources with their own identity, and given a class called Name. They are described in detail in the shared patterns section. If there is a primary or main name to use, it should be classified_as aat:300404670.

Example: A person named "J. Smith"

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/3", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "J. Smith", 
  "identified_by": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/2", 
      "type": "Name", 
      "content": "J. Smith", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404670", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Primary Name"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person3) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''J. Smith''") class O1_4 literal; O2(name2) class O2 name; O2-- type -->O2_0[Name] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- content -->O2_3("''J. Smith''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300404670) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Primary Name''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O1-- identified_by -->O2

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Parts of Names

Personal names can often be broken down into parts, with different types. The types are given using the classified_as property. The name parts are themselves Names, and are included in the part set in the same way as other partitioning. The type of name is given using classified_as, in the regular fashion. Western name division vocabulary is given below, and other name part types should be suggested.

Vocabulary:

Term Vocabulary
First Name (aat:300404651)
Middle Name (aat:300404654)
Last Name (aat:300404652)
Prefix (aat:300404662)
Suffix (aat:300404845)

Example: A person named "Lady Joan A. Smith, Duchess of Wolverhampton"

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/4", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Lady Joan A. Smith, Duchess of Wolverhampton", 
  "identified_by": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/3", 
      "type": "Name", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404670", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Primary Name"
        }
      ], 
      "content": "Lady Joan A. Smith, Duchess of Wolverhampton", 
      "part": [
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/6", 
          "type": "Name", 
          "content": "Lady", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404845", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Name Prefix"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/4", 
          "type": "Name", 
          "content": "Joan", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404651", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Given Name"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/8", 
          "type": "Name", 
          "content": "A.", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404654", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Middle Name"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/5", 
          "type": "Name", 
          "content": "Smith", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404652", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Family Name"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/7", 
          "type": "Name", 
          "content": "Duchess of Wolverhampton", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404662", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Name Suffix"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person4) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Lady Joan A. Smith, Duchess of Wolverhampton''") class O1_4 literal; O2(name3) class O2 name; O2-- type -->O2_0[Name] class O2_0 classstyle; O3(aat: 300404670) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Primary Name''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O2-- content -->O2_4("''Lady Joan A. Smith, Duchess of Wolverhampton''") class O2_4 literal; O4(name6) class O4 name; O4-- type -->O4_0[Name] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- content -->O4_3("''Lady''") class O4_3 literal; O5(aat: 300404845) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Type] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Name Prefix''") class O5_3 literal; O4-- classified_as -->O5 O2-- part -->O4 O6(name4) class O6 name; O6-- type -->O6_0[Name] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- content -->O6_3("''Joan''") class O6_3 literal; O7(aat: 300404651) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Type] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''Given Name''") class O7_3 literal; O6-- classified_as -->O7 O2-- part -->O6 O8(name8) class O8 name; O8-- type -->O8_0[Name] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- content -->O8_3("''A.''") class O8_3 literal; O9(aat: 300404654) class O9 type; O9-- type -->O9_0[Type] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- _label -->O9_3("''Middle Name''") class O9_3 literal; O8-- classified_as -->O9 O2-- part -->O8 O10(name5) class O10 name; O10-- type -->O10_0[Name] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- content -->O10_3("''Smith''") class O10_3 literal; O11(aat: 300404652) class O11 type; O11-- type -->O11_0[Type] class O11_0 classstyle; O11-- _label -->O11_3("''Family Name''") class O11_3 literal; O10-- classified_as -->O11 O2-- part -->O10 O12(name7) class O12 name; O12-- type -->O12_0[Name] class O12_0 classstyle; O12-- content -->O12_3("''Duchess of Wolverhampton''") class O12_3 literal; O13(aat: 300404662) class O13 type; O13-- type -->O13_0[Type] class O13_0 classstyle; O13-- _label -->O13_3("''Name Suffix''") class O13_3 literal; O12-- classified_as -->O13 O2-- part -->O12 O1-- identified_by -->O2

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Identity

People are often assigned identifiers that should be recorded and tracked in the same way as any other identity. While the primary identifier from a Linked Open Data perspective is the URI given to the person that provides the data about the person, there can be any number of other identifiers also associated with the resource. These follow the same pattern as for other identifiers, with identified_by being used with an Identifier resource, that can have further classifications and a content string. Organizations can also have identifiers, using the same pattern.

Example: A local identifier for the person is "643".

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/5", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Xavier Y. Zeelander", 
  "identified_by": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/3", 
      "type": "Identifier", 
      "content": "643", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300404621", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Owner-Assigned Number"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person5) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Xavier Y. Zeelander''") class O1_4 literal; O2(identifier3) class O2 name; O2-- type -->O2_0[Identifier] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- content -->O2_3("''643''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300404621) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Owner-Assigned Number''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O1-- identified_by -->O2

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Other Linked Data Identifiers

There may be other identifiers for the person available in external systems, such as ULAN or any of a dozen others. If all of the information needed about the person is available from that system, then it is recommended to simply use that identifier directly as the URI for the Person. If there is a requirement to maintain separate information about the person, then the exact_match property should be used to align the two. This might happen when, for example, the local data has additional information about which documents refer to the person, or more detailed biographical information.

Example: Van Gogh has the ULAN identity http://vocab.getty.edu/ulan/500115588

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/6", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Vincent Van Gogh", 
  "exact_match": [
    {"id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/ulan/500115588","_label": "Van Gogh, Vincent"}
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person6) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Vincent Van Gogh''") class O1_4 literal; O2(ulan: 500115588) O2-- _label -->O2_2("''Van Gogh, Vincent''") class O2_2 literal; O1-- exact_match -->O2

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Addresses

People and Organizations often have addresses, physical or online, via which they can be contacted. This includes mailing addresses, email addresses and so forth. These are referenced separately from Names and Identifiers, as many Actors might have the same contact point. The address is the Name for a location or service, and is thus modeled as a Name. This Name is then related to the actor via the contact_point property. They can be classified_as different types, and use the content property to capture the address itself.

Example: The person A. Bacchus has an email address, and can be contacted via mail at the museum they are employed by.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/7", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "A. Bacchus", 
  "member_of": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/3", 
      "type": "Group", 
      "_label": "Example City Museum", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300312281", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Museum"
        }
      ], 
      "contact_point": [
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/5", 
          "type": "Identifier", 
          "content": "1200 Museum Drive, Example City", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435687", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Street Address"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ], 
  "contact_point": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/4", 
      "type": "Identifier", 
      "content": "a.person@example.org", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435686", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Email Address"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person7) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''A. Bacchus''") class O1_4 literal; O2(group3) class O2 actor; O2-- type -->O2_0[Group] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Example City Museum''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300312281) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Museum''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O4(identifier5) class O4 name; O4-- type -->O4_0[Identifier] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- content -->O4_3("''1200 Museum Drive, Example City''") class O4_3 literal; O5(aat: 300435687) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Type] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Street Address''") class O5_3 literal; O4-- classified_as -->O5 O2-- contact_point -->O4 O1-- member_of -->O2 O6(identifier4) class O6 name; O6-- type -->O6_0[Identifier] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- content -->O6_3("''a.person@example.org''") class O6_3 literal; O7(aat: 300435686) class O7 type; O7-- type -->O7_0[Type] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- _label -->O7_3("''Email Address''") class O7_3 literal; O6-- classified_as -->O7 O1-- contact_point -->O6

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Street Addresses

It is also valuable to use the partitioning pattern to break street addresses into their component parts, for presentation to users, for filling out forms, or for ease of discovery. In particular, the following terms are recommended.

Term Vocabulary Description
Street Number (aat:300419272) The number of the street address
Street Name (aat:300419273) The complete name of the street, including any directional attributes (South) and type (Boulevard)
City (aat:300008389) The name of the city
Postal Code (aat:300419274) The postal code for the address
State/Province (aat:300000774) The state or province for the address
Country (aat:300128207) The country for the address

Example: The Museum's address is made up of a street number, street name, city and postal code.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/4", 
  "type": "Group", 
  "_label": "Example City Museum", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300312281", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "Museum"
    }
  ], 
  "contact_point": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/6", 
      "type": "Identifier", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435687", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Street Address"
        }
      ], 
      "content": "1200 Museum Drive, Example City, 90049", 
      "part": [
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/7", 
          "type": "Identifier", 
          "content": "1200", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300419272", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Street Number"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/8", 
          "type": "Identifier", 
          "content": "Museum Drive", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300419273", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Street Name"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/name/9", 
          "type": "Name", 
          "content": "Example City", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300008389", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "City"
            }
          ]
        }, 
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/identifier/9", 
          "type": "Identifier", 
          "content": "90049", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300419274", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Postal Code"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(group4) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Group] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Example City Museum''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat: 300312281) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Museum''") class O2_3 literal; O1-- classified_as -->O2 O3(identifier6) class O3 name; O3-- type -->O3_0[Identifier] class O3_0 classstyle; O4(aat: 300435687) class O4 type; O4-- type -->O4_0[Type] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_3("''Street Address''") class O4_3 literal; O3-- classified_as -->O4 O3-- content -->O3_4("''1200 Museum Drive, Example City, 90049''") class O3_4 literal; O5(identifier7) class O5 name; O5-- type -->O5_0[Identifier] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- content -->O5_3("''1200''") class O5_3 literal; O6(aat: 300419272) class O6 type; O6-- type -->O6_0[Type] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- _label -->O6_3("''Street Number''") class O6_3 literal; O5-- classified_as -->O6 O3-- part -->O5 O7(identifier8) class O7 name; O7-- type -->O7_0[Identifier] class O7_0 classstyle; O7-- content -->O7_3("''Museum Drive''") class O7_3 literal; O8(aat: 300419273) class O8 type; O8-- type -->O8_0[Type] class O8_0 classstyle; O8-- _label -->O8_3("''Street Name''") class O8_3 literal; O7-- classified_as -->O8 O3-- part -->O7 O9(name9) class O9 name; O9-- type -->O9_0[Name] class O9_0 classstyle; O9-- content -->O9_3("''Example City''") class O9_3 literal; O10(aat: 300008389) class O10 type; O10-- type -->O10_0[Type] class O10_0 classstyle; O10-- _label -->O10_3("''City''") class O10_3 literal; O9-- classified_as -->O10 O3-- part -->O9 O11(identifier9) class O11 name; O11-- type -->O11_0[Identifier] class O11_0 classstyle; O11-- content -->O11_3("''90049''") class O11_3 literal; O12(aat: 300419274) class O12 type; O12-- type -->O12_0[Type] class O12_0 classstyle; O12-- _label -->O12_3("''Postal Code''") class O12_3 literal; O11-- classified_as -->O12 O3-- part -->O11 O1-- contact_point -->O3

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Life Events

There are key events in a person or organization's lifespan that are often recorded as they contribute core information for determining the identity of the actor. These include the birth or formation, death or dissolution, and the period in which they carried out the work they are known for.

Birth and Death / Formation and Dissolution

Like the production of objects or the creation of texts, people and organizations also come into and out of existence through events. These events can take place at certain Places, and happen at certain times.

People are born in Birth events and die in Death events, related to the person by the born and died properties respectively. Groups are formed in Formation events, and dissolved in Dissolution events, referenced via the formed_by and dissolved_by properties. These classes are modeled not as Activities, but as Events that are not themselves carried out by anyone. They are the coming into existence instant of the person, not the conception of the couple, the labor of the mother, or potentially the killing by a murderer. These activities can be modeled as causes, as described below.

Birth and Death do not have any properties of their own that are used in the model, only those inherited from the event superclass, such as timespan and took_place_at.

!!! "note" "Inanimate Thing or Dead Person?" After death, people are still instances of Person which is a subclass of Actor, even though they can no longer carry out activities. People in comas or otherwise completely incapacitated also cannot carry out activities, but are not temporarily non-Actors. The modeling that death is a transformation from an instance of Person to an instance of Thing adds complexity for the sake of purity, but does not add any actual value. Thus a burial activity (aat:300263485) buries a Person, not a Thing-that-used-to-be-a-Person. However if the skeleton is then dug up and exhibited, it is exhibited as a Thing. There is, therefore, a transition at some undetermined point.

Example: The birth and death of Amanda B. Curtlett.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/8", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Amanda B. Curtlett", 
  "born": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/5", 
    "type": "Birth", 
    "timespan": {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/3", 
      "type": "TimeSpan", 
      "begin_of_the_begin": "1767-01-09", 
      "end_of_the_end": "1767-01-12"
    }
  }, 
  "died": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/6", 
    "type": "Death", 
    "took_place_at": [
      {
        "id": "https://linked.art/example/place/5", 
        "type": "Place", 
        "_label": "Death Place"
      }
    ], 
    "timespan": {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/4", 
      "type": "TimeSpan", 
      "begin_of_the_begin": "1824-08-21", 
      "end_of_the_end": "1824-08-21"
    }
  }
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person8) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Amanda B. Curtlett''") class O1_4 literal; O2(activity5) class O2 event; O2-- type -->O2_0[Birth] class O2_0 classstyle; O3(time3) class O3 timespan; O3-- type -->O3_0[TimeSpan] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- begin_of_the_begin -->O3_3("''1767-01-09''") class O3_3 literal; O3-- end_of_the_end -->O3_4("''1767-01-12''") class O3_4 literal; O2-- timespan -->O3 O1-- born -->O2 O4(activity6) class O4 event; O4-- type -->O4_0[Death] class O4_0 classstyle; O5(place5) class O5 place; O5-- type -->O5_0[Place] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Death Place''") class O5_3 literal; O4-- took_place_at -->O5 O6(time4) class O6 timespan; O6-- type -->O6_0[TimeSpan] class O6_0 classstyle; O6-- begin_of_the_begin -->O6_3("''1824-08-21''") class O6_3 literal; O6-- end_of_the_end -->O6_4("''1824-08-21''") class O6_4 literal; O4-- timespan -->O6 O1-- died -->O4

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Example: The formation and dissolution of the ill-fated Example Organization

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/5", 
  "type": "Group", 
  "_label": "Example Organization", 
  "dissolved_by": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/Dissolution/0", 
    "type": "Dissolution", 
    "_label": "Dissolution of Example Organization", 
    "timespan": {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/6", 
      "type": "TimeSpan", 
      "begin_of_the_begin": "1790-06-12T00:00:00", 
      "end_of_the_end": "1790-06-12T23:59:59"
    }
  }, 
  "formed_by": {
    "id": "https://linked.art/example/Formation/0", 
    "type": "Formation", 
    "_label": "Formation of Example Organization", 
    "timespan": {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/5", 
      "type": "TimeSpan", 
      "begin_of_the_begin": "1639-12-01T00:00:00", 
      "end_of_the_end": "1639-12-31T23:59:59"
    }
  }
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(group5) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Group] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Example Organization''") class O1_4 literal; O2(Dissolution0) class O2 event; O2-- type -->O2_0[Dissolution] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Dissolution of Example Organization''") class O2_3 literal; O3(time6) class O3 timespan; O3-- type -->O3_0[TimeSpan] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- begin_of_the_begin -->O3_3("''1790-06-12T00:00:00''") class O3_3 literal; O3-- end_of_the_end -->O3_4("''1790-06-12T23:59:59''") class O3_4 literal; O2-- timespan -->O3 O1-- dissolved_by -->O2 O4(Formation0) class O4 event; O4-- type -->O4_0[Formation] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_3("''Formation of Example Organization''") class O4_3 literal; O5(time5) class O5 timespan; O5-- type -->O5_0[TimeSpan] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- begin_of_the_begin -->O5_3("''1639-12-01T00:00:00''") class O5_3 literal; O5-- end_of_the_end -->O5_4("''1639-12-31T23:59:59''") class O5_4 literal; O4-- timespan -->O5 O1-- formed_by -->O4

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Active Dates

It is often useful to know where and when the person or organization was active in their professional function. For example, an artist might have started painting when they were 20, stopped by 30, and only painted in Italy. This information can be used to help eliminate dubious attributions, for example.

The property for the Person or Group is carried_out, the inverse of the more familiar carried_out_by from Activities to Actors. The Activity resource should be classified_as aat:300393177, meaning the time when the actor is actively performing their primary professional function. The other properties of activities can and should also be used.

Example: Patrick Q. Robertson was active between 1910-01-01 and 1934-03-21

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/9", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Patrick Q. Robertson", 
  "carried_out": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/activity/7", 
      "type": "Activity", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300393177", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Professional Activities"
        }
      ], 
      "timespan": {
        "id": "https://linked.art/example/time/7", 
        "type": "TimeSpan", 
        "begin_of_the_begin": "1910-01-01", 
        "end_of_the_end": "1934-03-21"
      }
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person9) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Patrick Q. Robertson''") class O1_4 literal; O2(activity7) class O2 event; O2-- type -->O2_0[Activity] class O2_0 classstyle; O3(aat: 300393177) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Professional Activities''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O4(time7) class O4 timespan; O4-- type -->O4_0[TimeSpan] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- begin_of_the_begin -->O4_3("''1910-01-01''") class O4_3 literal; O4-- end_of_the_end -->O4_4("''1934-03-21''") class O4_4 literal; O2-- timespan -->O4 O1-- carried_out -->O2

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Descriptive Information

Biography

Biographical descriptions follow the LinguisticObject pattern, with biography (aat:300080102) as the classification. In all other respects, it is a vanilla usage of a resource being referred_to_by a particular text.

Example: David E. Frederickson's very should example biography.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/10", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "David E. Frederickson", 
  "referred_to_by": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/text/5", 
      "type": "LinguisticObject", 
      "content": "David was born at a very early age.", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300435422", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Biography Statement"
        }, 
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300418049", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Brief Text"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person10) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''David E. Frederickson''") class O1_4 literal; O2(text5) class O2 infoobj; O2-- type -->O2_0[LinguisticObject] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- content -->O2_3("''David was born at a very early age.''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300435422) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Biography Statement''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O4(aat: 300418049) class O4 type; O4-- type -->O4_0[Type] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_3("''Brief Text''") class O4_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O4 O1-- referred_to_by -->O2

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Nationality

Nationality is modeled as a Type that is associated with the Person, rather than as a Group as described in the CIDOC-CRM ontology document. This is because all of the people, across all time, who have had a particular nationality, cannot take action as a single coherent entity. As Group is a sub-class of Actor, it is not thought to be an appropriate class for this use. Without proliferating new classes (e.g. sets of people that are not actors), the traditional and perfectly consistent way to describe nationality is as a flag on the person, which is modeled as a Type.

The Type resource should have aat:300379842 as one of its classifications, such that a consuming application can find all of the nationality types from amongst the person's classifications. The nationality resource should either be from an established vocabulary of nationalities, or have an exact_match to an established vocabulary entry if additional local information is necessary to record, such as a particular name for that nationality.

Example: Jeremy K. Lintott is a British national.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/11", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Jeremy K. Lintott", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300111159", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "British", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300379842", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Nationality"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person11) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Jeremy K. Lintott''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat: 300111159) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''British''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300379842) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Nationality''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O1-- classified_as -->O2

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Ethnicity

Ethnicity is separate from nationality, as it refers to a social group or culture as opposed to a political nation or state. The same argument as to why nationality is modeledthis is not a Group applies

Gender

Gender is a hotly debated and politically charged topic. The intent of this section is not to take a stand on those debates, but instead to allow the representation of data in museum and other information management systems to be made accessible.

Gender is not specifically discussed in CRM, in fact it was even deleted from a previous version, and the current modeling decision is to echo the same Aggregation pattern as for nationality. This allows a plethora of gender diversity, and does not make any specific statements about biological versus assumed versus prefered gender roles. A Person can be a member of multiple groups at the same time, allowing the association with multiple genders with this modeling decision. Gender based groups should be classified_as aat:300055147 along with any specific classification known.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/12", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Mabel N. Overton", 
  "classified_as": [
    {
      "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300189557", 
      "type": "Type", 
      "_label": "feminine", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055147", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Gender"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person12) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Mabel N. Overton''") class O1_4 literal; O2(aat: 300189557) class O2 type; O2-- type -->O2_0[Type] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''feminine''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300055147) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Gender''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O1-- classified_as -->O2

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Digital Integration

Images of the person can also be provided, in the same way as for images of objects via the representation property. If IIIF resources, web pages or other digital content is available, the same patterns as for objects also apply. Only the basic image case is shown below, the other scenarios can easily be determined from the referenced digital integration for objects.

FIXME

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/13", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Gertrude H. Ingram"
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person13) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Gertrude H. Ingram''") class O1_4 literal;

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Organization Membership

As discussed above, Organizations can be seen as the actor when it comes to their roles in various events. For example, an auction is likely to be carried out by an organization, and they can own and curate objects.

The only significantly new aspect to organizational actors, compared to people, is that they can have members. These members can be either sub-groups, such as a department within a museum, or individuals.

For example, a curator could be a member_of a department, which is in turn a member of the wider institution. This is simply the inverse of member relationship described in the base patterns.

{
  "@context": "https://linked.art/ns/v1/linked-art.json", 
  "id": "https://linked.art/example/person/14", 
  "type": "Person", 
  "_label": "Sameen T. Underwood", 
  "member_of": [
    {
      "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/6", 
      "type": "Group", 
      "_label": "Paintings Department", 
      "classified_as": [
        {
          "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300263534", 
          "type": "Type", 
          "_label": "Department"
        }
      ], 
      "member_of": [
        {
          "id": "https://linked.art/example/group/7", 
          "type": "Group", 
          "_label": "Example Museum", 
          "classified_as": [
            {
              "id": "http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300312281", 
              "type": "Type", 
              "_label": "Museum"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}
graph TD classDef object stroke:black,fill:#E1BA9C,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef actor stroke:black,fill:#FFBDCA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef type stroke:red,fill:#FAB565,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef name stroke:orange,fill:#FEF3BA,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef dims stroke:black,fill:#c6c6c6,rx:20px,ry:20px; classDef infoobj stroke:#907010,fill:#fffa40,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef timespan stroke:blue,fill:#ddfffe,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef place stroke:#3a7a3a,fill:#aff090,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef event stroke:blue,fill:#96e0f6,rx:20px,ry:20px classDef literal stroke:black,fill:#f0f0e0; classDef classstyle stroke:black,fill:white; O1(person14) class O1 actor; O1-- type -->O1_0[Person] class O1_0 classstyle; O1-- _label -->O1_4("''Sameen T. Underwood''") class O1_4 literal; O2(group6) class O2 actor; O2-- type -->O2_0[Group] class O2_0 classstyle; O2-- _label -->O2_3("''Paintings Department''") class O2_3 literal; O3(aat: 300263534) class O3 type; O3-- type -->O3_0[Type] class O3_0 classstyle; O3-- _label -->O3_3("''Department''") class O3_3 literal; O2-- classified_as -->O3 O4(group7) class O4 actor; O4-- type -->O4_0[Group] class O4_0 classstyle; O4-- _label -->O4_3("''Example Museum''") class O4_3 literal; O5(aat: 300312281) class O5 type; O5-- type -->O5_0[Type] class O5_0 classstyle; O5-- _label -->O5_3("''Museum''") class O5_3 literal; O4-- classified_as -->O5 O2-- member_of -->O4 O1-- member_of -->O2

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